By Giovanni Floris, Bruno Mondovi
Although the volume of analysis on copper amine oxidases has grown quickly and considerably some time past decade, the sphere regrettably suffers from loss of solidarity and critical confusion surrounds features so simple as affirmation of enzyme identities. This e-book describes the constitution of the enzymes, the position of copper, and of the bizarre cofactor 6-hydroxydopa quinine derived from a posttranslational amendment of a tyrosine residue. It additionally covers the variations of among AOs from micro organism, vegetation, and mammals. eventually, the textual content examines the significance of this ubiquitous type of enzymes in body structure and in metabolism of biogenic amines.
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Additional info for Copper amine oxidases : structures, catalytic mechanisms, and role in pathophysiology
5 Alternative Functions of Copper-Containing Amine Oxidases Function Amine oxidation Vascular adhesion Chemotaxis Glucose transport Adipocyte maturation Extracellular matrix Imidazoline binding Cell death DAO LOX SSAO Role of H2O2 Yes No ? ? Yes Yes Yes No Yes ? Yes ? Yes Yes Yes (endothelial) ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Reaction product Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes high concentrations are necessary and the addition of vanadate is also required in some systems. , 2000). , 2000). Thus, it appears that the generation of H2O2 during the oxidation of substrates by PrAO stimulates glucose uptake by recruiting GLUT4 to cell surfaces.
6) in terms of their cofactor requirements, does not follow the usual rules and provides ample scope for confusion because many researchers are interested in what an enzyme does, not the cofactors it uses. For example, several publications claiming to focus on MAOs actually concern SSAOs. One leading supplier marketed SSAO as MAO for many years. Sometimes reference to the source tissue can help, for example, papers about plasma monoamine oxidase probably concern SSAO or DAO because MAO is absent from blood plasma.
DAO and LOX are also insensitive to inhibition by clorgyline. 2 What’s in a Name? A Clear Case for Confusion The above brief account of names used in attempts to distinguish the coppercontaining amine oxidases from monoamine oxidase indicates the need for greater clarity. Although most scientists agree on the need for standardized, universally accepted systems of nomenclature in biochemistry, chemistry, and genetics, the problem lies in the acceptance of standard names. One simple rule of enzyme nomenclature is that the number of complaints about the existing system (and there are many concerning the copper amine oxidases) will always be exceeded by the number of complaints received when attempts are made to improve the system.