By J. S. Brazier, S. P. Borriello (auth.), Professor Dr.Dr. Klaus Aktories, Dr. Tracy D. Wilkins (eds.)
Clostridium difficile has been well-known because the reason for a vast spectrum of enteric sickness starting from light antibiotic-associated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. This quantity supplies new insights into the microbiology, diagnostics and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile and describes contemporary recommendations in therapy of illnesses as a result of this agent. major elements of the amount are dedicated to Clostridium difficile pollution A and B that are the main virulence components. The molecular biology, biochemistry, pharmacology and mobile biology of those pollutants that are the prototypes of a brand new relatives of huge clostridial cytotoxins is defined in nice aspect. Clostridium difficile pollution act as glucosyltransferases to inactivate small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho kinfolk that are fascinated about rules of the actin cytoskeleton, mobile adhesion and numerous signaling processes.
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Additional info for Clostridium difficile
1997). Toxin A also has been shown to elicit the production of various biological response modifiers such as cytokines a nd neurokinins, which appear to play an important role in pathogenesis (CASTAGLIOULO et al. 1994, 1997, 1998; MANYTI-I et al. 1996a,b; POTHOULAK IS et al. 1994, 1998). Toxin B does not cause damage or a fluid response when injected alone in intestinal loops (LIMA et al. 1988; LYERLY et al. 1982; LYERLY and WILKINS 1995). This is probably due to an inability to bind to a receptor on the intestinal brush border membrane cells under normal physiological conditions.
1990; JOHNSON et al. 1(90). As it turned ouL the toxin A and B genes were located in close proximity and this work led to the cloning and sequencing of both toxin genes. Sequencing of the toxin A gene by Dove et al. showed that the structural gene is 8130 nuc1eotides and encodes a 308k Da protein which is 271 () amino acids in length (DOVE et al. 1(90). This enn1irmed that toxin A was as large as had heen Genetics of CloslridiulII dif/idle Toxins 39 predicted by SDS-PAGE analysis. At that time, it made toxin A the largest known single polypeptide bacterial toxin .
Teresa H, Pratt J (1992) Multicenter evaluation of a ncw enzymc immunoassay for detection of Clostridiul1I di/ftcile enterotoxin A. J Clin Microhiol 30: 1085- I 088 Delmee M. Homel M. Wauters G (1985) Serogrouping of Clostridium di/ftcile strains by slide agglutination. J Clin Microhiol 2 I :323- 327 Delmee M, Avesani V (1990) Virulence or ten serogroups of ClostridiulII di/ftcill! in hamsters. J Mcd M icrohiol 33:85- 90 Delmee M. Mackey T. Hamitou A (1992) Evaluation of a new commercial ClostridiulIl di/ftcile toxin A enzyme immunoassay using diarrhoeal stools.