By Ghassem R. Asrar, James W. Hurrell
This quantity deals a finished survey and an in depth research of efforts to increase actionable weather info in aid of important judgements for weather version, danger administration and coverage. coming up from submissions and dialogue on the 2011 Open technological know-how convention (OSC) of the area weather study software (WCRP), the publication addresses learn and highbrow demanding situations which span the whole variety of application activities.
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Additional info for Climate Science for Serving Society: Research, Modeling and Prediction Priorities
Because of these issues, only a few satellite records (water vapor and microwave temperatures) were used to determine trends in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) (IPCC 2007). In the following, the observing system and its suitability for climate purposes is outlined. Acronyms are given in an appendix. We describe recent improvements for Challenges of a Sustained Climate Observing System 17 cross calibrating space-based observations, for instance, and immediate prospects for the future. The needs are discussed along with the issues and challenges in meeting them.
1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Fig. 1 Changes in the mix and increasing diversity of observations over time create challenges for a consistent climate record (Courtesy, S. Brönnimann, University of Bern. Adapted from Brönnimann et al. 2008) 1970s around 50,000 km2 per year of natural vegetation across Africa has been converted to agricultural land or cleared (Brink and Eva 2009). 5 % of land (Schneider et al. 2009), and these changes are very small on a global basis. Radiosonde and other instrumental records suffer from biases that have changed over time.
In 2011, ICSU appointed a Transition Team consisting of international scientists and experts to develop further its research strategy and a governance mechanism for its oversight. The ICSU initiative is entitled “Future Earth: Research for Global Sustainability”. It is envisioned Future Earth will succeed ESSP (Leemans et al. 2009). A subset of the International Group of Funding Agencies (IGFA), called the Belmont Forum, together with some UN system organizations and ICSU, have established an Alliance to oversee the governance and implementation of the Future Earth initiative.