Citizens of Europe?: The Emergence of a Mass European by Michael Bruter (auth.)

By Michael Bruter (auth.)

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In particular, I can derive from the last few pages three major mechanisms of institutional influence on an emerging European identity: ᭿ ᭿ ᭿ Good and bad news on Europe and European integration; Symbols of Europe and the European Union; European experience, in the form of institutional inertia, or individual cultural characteristics. Good news, bad news, and European identity In the first part of this chapter, we saw that political communication and assessment of ‘news’ on Europe might be expected to have an impact on an emerging European identity.

Here again, the independent variables of interest will be the diffusion of symbols of European integration, good and bad news on European integration over time, and institutional inertia. 2. The Model and Research Design 39 Institutional inertia Symbols European identity News Support for integration Unknown factors Known effect from European identity model Unknown link: risk of bias in identity model if not null. 2 Test-model of support for European integration The methods The individual level and aggregate level models are obviously directly connected as, in part, the possible emergence of a mass European identity over time can only be explained to the extent that I understand better how identities in general and a European identity in particular may evolve and be influenced by institutions at the individual level.

As shown in Chapter 4, European institutions have provided the European Union (and before it the Council of Europe, European Community of Steel and Coal [ECSC], European Economic Community [EEC] and European Community [EC] with many quasi ‘statal’ and ‘national’ symbols. European institutions have quite clearly recognised directly and indirectly that they have expected such symbols to stimulate and reinforce a mass European identity among European citizens. This clearly appears in several documents such as the guidelines distributed by the European Commission to its external service (Bruter, 1999).

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