Ciba Foundation Symposium 52 - The Freezing of Mammalian

Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–2): D. G. Whittingham
Chapter 2 The Freezing of Mammalian Embryos: views and percentages (pages 3–18): C. Polge
Chapter three Slow?Freezing harm in Mammalian Cells (pages 19–48): Peter Mazur
Chapter four results of Interactions among Cooling and Rewarming stipulations on Survival of Cells (pages 49–67): J. Farrant, Heather Lee and C. A. Walter
Chapter five primary Cryobiology of Mouse Ova and Embryos (pages 69–96): S. P. Leibo
Chapter 6 a few elements Affecting Embryo garage in Laboratory Animals (pages 97–127): D. G. Whittincham
Chapter 7 delivery Mechanisms within the Preimplantation Mammalian Embryo (pages 129–153): John D. Biggers, R. Michael Borland and R. Douglas Powers
Chapter eight The impact of Temperature at the Lateral Diffusion of Plasma Membrane Proteins (pages 155–174): Michael Edidin and Valerie A. Petit
Chapter nine components Affecting the Survival of Sheep Embryos in the course of Deep?Freezing and Thawing (pages 175–201): S. M. Willadsen
Chapter 10 Frozen garage of Embryos of cattle: development and Implications (pages 203–233): N. W. Moore and R. J. Bilton
Chapter eleven The Relevance of the Frozen garage of Human Embryos (pages 235–250): R. G. Edwards and P. C. Steptoe
Chapter 12 Genetic balance in mobile platforms saved within the Frozen country (pages 251–272): M. J. Ashwood?Smith and Elizabeth Grant
Chapter thirteen Long?Term garage of Frozen Mouse Embryos below elevated heritage Irradiation (pages 273–290): Mary F. Lyon, D. G. Whittingham and P. Glenister
Chapter 14 Genetic glide: the matter and its attainable answer via Frozen?Embryo garage (pages 291–303): Donald W. Bailey
Chapter 15 A Mouse Geneticist's Impatient looking forward to the arriving of Embryo?Freezing options (pages 305–321): Jan Klein

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Extra info for Ciba Foundation Symposium 52 - The Freezing of Mammalian Embryos

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Results like these are important in three respects: (1) They indicate that in these cells cell shrinkage per se is not the cause of slow-freezing injury, an indication that is counter to a hypothesis proposed by Meryman (1968, 1974; Meryman et al. 1977). Cells frozen in the presence of hyperosmotic concentrations of solutes which have not permeated intracellularly are osmotically shrunken before freezing; yet they survive. 3 osmolal, a value that far exceeds that required to shrink red cells to their minimum volume and to produce the cation leak (Meryman 1968, 1971; Farrant & Woolgar 1972a, b).

Injury in the presence of protective ~dditives The introduction of protective additives does not necessarily ensure high survivals after freezing and thawing. 3 and 12 “C/min yield less than 10% survival when thawed rapidly (Whittingham et a/. 1972). Part of the difficulty in understanding slow-freezing injury has been a tendency to assume that injury that is observed in the presence of a n additive has the same genesis as injury that is observed in the absence of a n additive. There is increasing evidence that this view is not correct.

7 "Cjmin); thawing was rapid. ) be discussed shortly, neither the solute influx, nor the conformational change in the plasma membrane responsible for it, appears to be irreversibly damaging. It needs again to be emphasized that the minimum volume experiments on which this hypothesis is based have been done at 2 0 "C. It remains to be determined whether similar events occur at subzero temperatures. BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES O F SLOWLY FROZEN CELLS TO SOLUTlON EFFECTS Electrolyte Concentration as a cuuse of' damage Mammalian cells frozen slowly in the absence of an additive are killed between about -5 "C and -20 "C.

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