Characterization Techniques of Glasses and Ceramics by F. J. Valle Fuentes (auth.), Prof. Jesus Ma. Rincon Ph.D.,

By F. J. Valle Fuentes (auth.), Prof. Jesus Ma. Rincon Ph.D., Maximina Romero Ph.D. (eds.)

This monograph offers with the main valuable and sleek equipment for characterising the inorganic fabrics corresponding to glasses and glass-ceramics, conventional and complicated. After a brief bankruptcy involved in selection of infrequent earths in ceramics and minerals, there are 3 chapters exhibiting the basics and major purposes of such a lot complex microstructure options for investigating glasses and ceramics: new microscopies (STM, AFM) and electron microscopy equipment reminiscent of CBED and HREM. 3 extra chapters are devoted to the foundation and extensive purposes of thermal equipment, one excited about purposes on zeolite fabrics. The XRD for texture research and up to date advances in fluorescence tools also are thought of in chapters. ultimately, the Mössbauer spectroscopy for the research of glasses and glass-ceramics and neutron diffraction for a similar kind of fabrics is broadly treated.

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All these effects are important, but beam spreading due to large thicknesses of some samples is the chief factor limiting the spatial resolution of the CBED and which frequently makes it difficult to obtain good results. Similarly, thermal conductivity of specimens, such as poor thermal conductors can increase the temperature to above 300°C for larger beam currents [21]. 2 Practical Aspects of CBED: Specimen Preparation and Operation in the TEM The normal procedures for obtaining CBED patterns are described in [21-23] and here are summarized in the following steps: 1.

M. Magnussen, J. J. M. J. Behm: Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2929 (1990). 20. J. Lorenz, L. Gassa, U. Schmidt, W. Obretenov, G. Staikov, V. Bostanov, E. Budevski: Electrochim. Acta. 37, 2173 (1992). 21. L. M. C. Schard: J. Am. Chern. Soc. 112, 3677 (1990). 22. M. Hallmark, S. F. D. J. Wilson: Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2879 (1987). 23. J. Wintterlin, J. Wiechers, H. Brune, T. Gritsch, H. J. Behm: Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 59 (1989). 24. J. Wintterlin: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Berlin (1989). 25. S. Ciraci: in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Related Methods (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990).

The small probes give rise to lower current producing very fine CBED patterns [11]. 2 Possibilities and limitations of CBED for characterising ceramic powders Despite the advantages of using CBED in powder characterization, due to the non-uniform thickness scattering effects can be produced which affect the diffraction patterns. The most frequent example is the information obtained from finely dispersed particles. As an example, the case of 10-50 nm YAG cubic particles of a YA10 3 perovskite oxide, YAP, in a strengthened alloy can be seen in [1].

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