By Helmut G. Karge, Ekkehard Geidel (auth.), Hellmut G. Karge, Jens Weitkamp (eds.)
Molecular Sieves - technology and Technology covers, in a complete demeanour, the technology and expertise of zeolites and all similar microporous and mesoporous fabrics. Authored by way of well known specialists, the contributions are grouped jointly topically in one of these manner that every quantity of the booklet sequence offers with a selected sub-field. Volume 4 covers the characterization of molecular sieves with assistance from an important spectroscopic ideas (Characterization I), i.e. IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, UV-VIS Spectroscopy, X-ray absorption, photoelectron and Mössbauer Spectroscopy. idea, scan and alertness in chosen examples are discussed.
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Additional resources for Characterization I: -/-
Moreover, it should be possible to operate the cell under high vacuum and especially as a flow-through microreactor. The spatial resolution is, however, diffraction-limited. Diffraction effects are particularly large if the size of the area under study is approximately equal to the IR wavelength employed. A suitable cell was designed by Mueller et al. and described in Ref.  (see also Sects. 4). G. Karge · E. Geidel Fig. 9. , activation, reaction and diffusion [149, 158] In transmission IR experiments, single crystals, pressed powder wafers or small powder samples embedded in pressed KBr or CsI pellets are used.
112, 114] and Sect. 2). In these experiments, usually the so-called KBr-technique was used (cf. Sects. 2). , the nSi/nAl ratio of the zeolite framework were disclosed and discussed. Furthermore, with the advent of improved instrumentation and experimental techniques interesting in-situ investigations became possible which were related, for instance, to the synthesis of and heterogeneous catalysis on zeolites, catalyst deactivation, diffusion or solid-state ion exchange as well as other postsynthesis modifications.
In many cases it may be sufficient to determine the relative concentration, in that one relates the actual absorbance to a standard value. For instance, one might use the ratio, Atreat/Ainitial, of the actual absorbance of the OH group band of a particularly treated sample to that of the initial absorbance of the parent sample measured prior to the treatment as monitored via IR . Another possibility is the normalization of absorbances by referencing to standard bands. Thus, Jentys et al. G.