Cardiovascular MR Manual by Sven Plein

By Sven Plein

The booklet presents an creation to CMR imaging that's comprehensible and curious about the suitable info had to utilizing CMR imaging in scientific perform. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has develop into a longtime imaging modality with an increasing diversity of medical symptoms. whereas some time past the supply of CMR imaging was once constrained to some expert centres the tactic is changing into extra greatly to be had. such a lot clinicians for this reason must have a normal knowing of the diagnostic details that may be got from CMR imaging, the symptoms for referral in addition to contraindications and boundaries of the tactic. For cardiologists and radiologists particularly, CMR imaging turns into a regimen diagnostic device and coaching curricula in Cardiology or Radiology mirror this pattern by means of more and more not easy education in CMR imaging.

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TR is another important parameter that can be set by the operator in milliseconds. As we will see in later sections it not only determines how fast MR images can be acquired (see Chap. 8), but also affects the image contrast (see Chap. 10). 6 51 Making an Image: Locating and Encoding Signals in Space 90° RF pulse RF Slice selection gradient applied along z GS Re-phasing gradient applied along z Phase encoding gradient applied along y GP Frequency encoding gradient applied along x GF Sampling period De-phasing gradient applied along x Frequency-encoded gradient echo Signal t TE Fig.

The location of MR signal contributions along the frequency encoding direction (x) is related to their frequency, while their location along the phase encoding direction (y) is related to their change in phase with each phase encoding step 6 Making an Image: Locating and Encoding Signals in Space 55 Further Reading Balaban RS, Peters DC. Basic principles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. In: Manning WJ, Pennell DJ, editors. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010.

Ridgway Relaxation: What Happens After the RF Excitation Pulse? , equilibrium. This process is known as relaxation. In fact there are two distinct relaxation processes that relate to the two components of the net magnetisation, the longitudinal (z) and transverse (xy) components. The first longitudinal relaxation process, commonly referred to as T1 relaxation is responsible for the re-growth of the z component along the longitudinal (z) axis to its original value at equilibrium. This is explained more fully in the next section.

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