By C. H. Douglas Clark
T HE objective of this quantity is to supply a transparent account of the final experimental and logical foundation of contemporary atomic theories. CO!lve"rsations with scholars end up that many that are conversant in atomic types fail to understand the experimental historical past, yet that, while reasons are provided, no trouble exists in arousing curiosity. it slow in the past, the writer learn a paper entitled" Atoms" prior to a Society composed often of scholars, and the degree of luck which, inspite of problems, attended this attempt, inspired him to think that whatever additional ll1ight be tried with virtue. the result's embodied within the current \vork, \vhere little or no prior wisdom is believed. The argument is going again to Dalton's thought, from which aspect the topic is thoroughly reasoned, the proper experimental paintings being quoted at each one step. awareness has been especially paid to sure issues which, notwithstanding obviously necessary to the argument, seem to have been insufficiently emphasized hitherto.
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Since typhus was not distinguished from typhoid fever before I 86g, they are classified together in table 3·3· It is unfortunate that this grouping is necessary, since typhus is not spread by water and food and should properly be included under the third category of 'other 6o DISEASES WHICH DECLINED 'omlitions'. The balance of deaths due to typhus and typhmd betore is uncertain, but from that time at least the latter greatly out;lt~~llbcrcd the former. The death r~te from typhus fell rapidly in the decade of the nineteenth century and there have been few deaths rom the disease during the twentieth.
Infection is transmitted mechanically by a biting insect, whether 1t1osquito in Australia or flea in Britain. Virus is not adequately picked up from the blood, but only from where it is most abundantly present, in the myxomatous lumps in the skin. Unless these appear and are reasonably rich in virus, spread will not occur. In Australia the originally introduced virus killed more than 99 per cent of the rabbits it infected. After a very few years, however, less virulent · strains appeared and soon predominated over the virulent ones.
2). We can be less confident about the trend of mortality from other airborne infections in the preregistration period. Diphtheria was confused with scarlet fever and there is no reliable information about deaths from diseases such as whooping cough, measles, bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza. Evidence concerning the water- and food-borne diseases is also lacking. Mortality from these infections was not falling in the decades immediately after registration, and did not begin to decline until there were improvements in water supplies and sewage disposal, in England and Wales from the seventh decade and in other countries of western Europe somewhat later.