By David S. Chang, Foster D. Lasley, Indra J. Das, Marc S. Mendonca, Joseph R. Dynlacht (auth.)
This publication is a concise and well-illustrated evaluation of the physics and biology of radiation treatment meant for radiation oncology citizens, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It provides subject matters which are incorporated at the Radiation treatment Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the rationale of offering details in an simply digestible structure with greatest retention in brain. The inclusion of mnemonics, principles of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations through the booklet aid to make tough thoughts more straightforward to know. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a necessary reference for college kids and potential scholars in each self-discipline of radiation oncology.
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Extra resources for Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology
Fortunately electrons can have their path bent by magnets to whatever direction is desired since they are charged particles. These magnets are usually located in the head of the Linac and bend the electrons 270 so that there is a divergence and then a convergence of an electron pencil beam. This also allows electrons that are not the desired energy to crash into the walls in the process of bending around the magnet (see Fig. 4). Flattening Filters (Photon Mode) • When a photon beam passes out of the primary collimator, it tends to be very intense at the center and fades out around the periphery (sort of like a flashlight beam).
Production of Radiation • Radioactive decay – for full details, see Chapt. 2. • Photons can be produced by the nucleus (γ-rays, ex: 60Co) or by interactions of electron orbitals (X-rays, Ex: 125I). • Electrons may be ejected as Auger electrons or as Beta Particles. • Alpha particles are produced by radioactive decay of heavy nuclei. X-ray Tube Diagnostic Energies • Used for plain X-ray imaging, mammography, CT scans, etc. • Brehmsstrahlung x-rays are produced whenever fast-moving electrons interact with matter.
6). N 182W 74 183W 74 HUGE hν Photonuclear disintegration Fig. 6 Photonuclear disintegration: A photon hits a nucleus with so much force that it actually knocks a chunk of the nucleus out of the atom (usually neutrons). 40 PHOTONUCLEAR DISINTEGRATION • When operating a Linac above 10 MV, the higher energy photons can interact with the metal components of the head of the machine and send neutrons flying into the patient. ° This is generally a BAD thing as neutrons have much greater late toxicity than photons.