Automated metadata in multimedia information systems: by Michael Christel

By Michael Christel

Advancements in community bandwidth besides dramatic drops in electronic garage and processing expenses have led to the explosive progress of multimedia (combinations of textual content, photo, audio, and video) assets on the net and in electronic repositories. a set of machine applied sciences providing speech, picture, and average language knowing can immediately derive descriptive metadata for such assets. problems for finish clients happen, notwithstanding, with the super quantity and ranging caliber of computerized metadata for multimedia info structures. This lecture surveys computerized metadata construction tools for facing multimedia details assets, utilizing broadcast information, documentaries, and oral histories as examples. suggestions for bettering the application of such metadata are mentioned, together with computationally extensive methods, leveraging multimodal redundancy, folding in context, and leaving precision-recall tradeoffs less than person regulate. Interfaces construction from instantly generated metadata are provided, illustrating using video surrogates in multimedia info structures. conventional info retrieval assessment is mentioned in the course of the annual nationwide Institute of criteria and know-how TRECVID discussion board, with experiments on exploratory seek extending the dialogue past fact-finding to broader, long term seek actions of studying, research, synthesis, and discovery.

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With this task, the usability ISO 9241 definition becomes: the extent to which a video retrieval system enables users to identify relevant shots from news video efficiently and effectively while promoting feelings of satisfaction. To address ecological validity, the topics are defined by NIST to reflect many of the types of queries real users pose, based on query logs against video corpora such as the BBC Archives and other empirical data [33, 106]. The topics include requests for specific items or people and general instances of locations and events, reflecting the Panofsky–Shatford mode/facet matrix of specific, generic, and abstract subjects of pictures [14].

Usability, of those surrogates and search capabilities against the metadata: do they matter, and are they any good? Usability is defined in an international standard (ISO 9241) as the extent to which a computer system or product enables users to achieve specified goals in a given context of use efficiently and effectively while promoting feelings of satisfaction. These three metrics of efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction appear throughout the human–computer interaction (HCI) literature.

This type of tuning by context is precisely how sports video processing can achieve the 90% or higher success rates published in multimedia conferences for events such as scoring. For example, armed with contextual knowledge that a scoring event is followed by the omnipresent numeric score changing in a particular area of the visual given a broadcaster, the detector for scoring event can focus on the score area and numbers changing, rather than the deeper and more difficult processing of the field of play.

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