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Utilized Radiological Anatomy for clinical scholars is the definitive atlas of human anatomy, using the full diversity of imaging modalities to explain basic anatomy and radiological findings. preliminary chapters describe all imaging recommendations and introduce the rules of snapshot interpretation. those are through complete sections on every one anatomical quarter. countless numbers of top of the range radiographs, MRI, CT and ultrasound pictures are incorporated, complemented by means of concise, focussed textual content. Many pictures are observed through specified, totally labelled line illustrations to assist interpretation. Written by way of prime specialists and skilled academics in imaging and anatomy, utilized Radiological Anatomy for clinical scholars is a useful source for all scholars s of anatomy and radiology.
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Fig. 17. Coronal magnetic resonance image of the posterior aspect of the thorax at the level of the acromion process of the scapula (arrow) showing the erector spinae muscles (asterisk). Muscles of the chest wall There is a complex arrangement of muscles around the chest which, in addition to the vital act of breating, help to maintain stability. Outermost and anteriorly are the pectoralis (major and minor) muscles; serratus anterior is situated laterally, and posterolaterally are the muscles of the shoulder girdle.
Computed tomography (CT) Computed tomography (CT) is a specialized X-ray technique, which produces cross-sectional (or axial) images of the body. The basic components of a CT machine are an X-ray tube, a series of detectors (sited diametrically opposite the tube), and computer hardware to reconstruct the images. When reviewing CT images, the observer must imagine that the cross-sectional images are being viewed from below; thus, structures on the left of the side of the subject will be on the observer’s right.
The main components of each hilum are the pulmonary artery, bronchus, veins, and lymph nodes. On a frontal radiograph, the right hilum may be identiﬁed as a broad V-shaped structure; the left hilum is often more difﬁcult to identify conﬁdently (Fig. 11). A useful landmark for the radiologist, 11 Supraclavicular nodes Right upper paratracheal nodes: nodes to the right of the midline of the trachea, between the intersection of the caudal margin of the innominate artery with the trachea and the apex of the lung Left upper paratracheal nodes: nodes to the left of the midline of the trachea, between the top of the aortic arch and the apex of the lung Right lower paratracheal nodes: nodes to the right of the midline of the trachea, between the cephalic border of the azygos vein and the intersection of the caudal margin of the brachiocephalic artery with the right side of the trachea Left lower paratracheal nodes: nodes to the left of the midline of the trachea, between the top of the aortic arch and the level of the carina, medial to the ligamentum arteriosum Aortopulmonary nodes: subaortic and paraaortic nodes, lateral to the ligamentum arteriosum or the aorta or left pulmonary artery, proximal to the ﬁrst branch of the left pulmonary artery Anterior mediastinal nodes: nodes anterior to the ascending aorta or the innominate artery Subcarinal nodes: nodes arising caudal to the carina of the trachea but not associated with the lower lobe bronchi or arteries within the lung Paraesophageal nodes: nodes dorsal to the posterior wall of the trachea and to the right or left of the midline of the esophagus Right or left pulmonary ligament nodes: nodes within the right or left pulmonary ligament Right tracheobronchial nodes: nodes to the right of the midline of the trachea, from the level of the cephalic border of the azygos vein to the origin of the right upper lobe bronchus Left tracheobronchial nodes: nodes to the left of the midline of the trachea, between the carina and the left upper lobe bronchus, medial to the ligamentum arteriosum Intrapulmonary nodes: nodes removed in the right or left lung specimen, plus those distal to the main-stem bronchi or secondary carina From Glazer et al.