By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)
Biological regulate is likely one of the such a lot promising equipment for keep watch over of pests (including vectors), ailments and weeds. during this ebook ecological and societal elements are for the 1st time handled jointly. In an ecological strategy the purpose is to guage the importance of definite organic houses like biodiversity and average habitats. additionally, you will need to see organic regulate from an natural (or ecological) farming standpoint. In a societal strategy phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are acknowledged as major for organic creation and human welfare.
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Additional info for An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control
Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany. 254 pp. Webber, H. J. 1967. History and development of the citrus industry. In The Citrus Industry, Vol. 1, W. J. D. Batchelor (eds), University of California Press, 1-39. Webster, J. P. G. and Bowles, R. G. 1996. Estimating the economic costs and benefits of pesticide use in apples. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests & Diseases, 1996, 4B1: 325-330. Webster, J. P. , Bowles, R. G. and Williams, N. T. 1999. Estimating the economic benefits of alternative pesticide usage scenarios: wheat production in the United Kingdom.
On the other hand, the release of the Japanese ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has met opposition in Switzerland, because it was suspected to attack the native fauna (see below). As a broad consensus, the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is prohibited by all standards. In the context of biological control, this concerns at present genetically modified strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, which are now used in the USA. All standards allow only the use of the naturally occurring strains of B.
This pest is also a good example to show the range of solutions within an organic plant protection strategy. In a first phase the grower has the possibility to choose apple varieties tolerant or resistant to aphids. , 2002). However, this range of varieties is too small to fulfil all agronomic and quality demands and therefore, susceptible varieties are still grown. Cultural practices including selective pruning, soil management and adapted organic fertilization are important tools to lower the risk of aphid calamities.