By L. Sokoloff (auth.), F. Gonzalez-Lima, Th. Finkenstädt, H. Scheich (eds.)
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Extra resources for Advances in Metabolic Mapping Techniques for Brain Imaging of Behavioral and Learning Functions
For example, Equation  is specific for conditions in which the tracer concentration in the tissue is zero at zero time. The general solution that covers all situations, whether the tissue concentration is zero or greater than zero at zero time, is as follows:  where Cj(O) equals the concentration in tissue i at the experimental zero time. If the tissue is first pre-loaded with tracer to a finite concentration of Cj(O) at the zero time of the experimental period, and the arterial concentration is then allowed to fall abruptly to zero, then the last term in Equation  becomes equal to zero, and the tissue concentration falls with time according to the following simplified equation, [5 ] where Cj(T) is the concentration in tissue i at some time T after zero time.
It should, however, be emphasized that full quantification confers additional sensitivity, specificity, and protection against misinterpretation of possible artifacts. Also, full quantification is essential to compare levels of ICMRglc and functional activities in comparable regions of different animals. 4. LOCAL RATES OF CEREBRAL GLUCOSE UTILIZATION. The DG method has been used to determine ICMRglc in all species in which the lumped constant has been measured (see TABLE 3). The rates in representative gray and white structures in the conscious rat, monkey, and cat are presented in TABLE 4.
Both 9 hexoses are transported bi-directionally across the blood-brain barrier by the same carrier and are phosphorylated in the tissues by hexokinase to their hexose-6-phosphate derivatives (Sols and Crape, 1954). Glucose and DG are, therefore, competitive substrates for both blood-brain barrier transport and hexokinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Unlike glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), however, which is rapidly metabolized further mainly to pyruvate and lactate and under aerobic conditions eventually to CO2 and H20, deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (DG-6-P) cannot be converted to fructose-6-phosphate and is a poor substrate for G-6-P dehydrogenase (Sols and Crane, 1954).