Adsorption and Aggregation of Surfactants in Solution by K.L. Mittal, Dinesh O. Shah

By K.L. Mittal, Dinesh O. Shah

Investigates the function and dynamics of surfactants and their resolution homes. bargains the newest examine and advancements within the realizing of surfactant habit in options.

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The existence of a solid state or a liquid state for monolayers can be inferred from such experimental results. It has been shown that mixed monolayers of oleic acid and cholesterol exhibit the minimum rate of evaporation at a 1:3 molar ratio of oleic acid to cholesterol. This is shown in mixed monolayers of oleic acid and cholesterol in Fig. 7 as a function of surface pressure [11]. In has further been shown that a 1:3 molar ratio in mixed fatty acid and fatty alcohol monolayers, one observes the maximum foam stability, minimum rate of evaporation, and maximum surface viscosity in these systems [12].

Annianson’s model [13–15] nicely predicts micelle kinetics at a low surfactant concentration based on stepwise association of surfactant monomers. Hence, the major parameters in this model are the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the total concentration of the surfactant in solution. At higher surfactant (and hence counterion) concentrations, experimental results begin to deviate from Aniansson’s model. Kahlweit’s fusion–fission model [16] takes into account the concentration and ionic strength of the counterions in these solutions and proposes that as the counterion concentration increases, the charge-induced repulsion between micelles and submicellar aggregates decreases, leading to coagulation of these submicellar aggregates.

Past investigations suggest the use of monosized particles for the CMP slurries to achieve a planarized surface and to minimize the surface deformation [85]. However, in practical applications there may be oversize particles in the slurries in the form of hard-core larger particles (hard agglomerates) or agglomerates of the primary slurry particles because of slurry instability (soft agglomerates). Polishing tests conducted in the presence of hard agglomerates in the CMP slurries verified significant degradation in the polishing performance [86].

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