By Sandra A. Thompson
Wappo is an indigenous language, more often than not considered as a language isolate, which was spoken within the Russian River Valley, simply north of San Francisco, California. This reference grammar relies at the speech of Laura Fish Somersal, its final fluent speaker, who died in 1990, and represents the main vast facts and grammatical learn ever performed in this language. The grammar specializes in morphosyntax, relatively nominal, verbal, and clausal buildings and clause combining styles, from a functional/typological standpoint.
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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
7 Genitive: -meʔ The genitive suffix, as in many languages, is used only with expressions of alienable possession. 2 above). The inalienable possession construction is found with body parts, kin terms (except for ek'a ‘son’, and ok'o:to ‘children’ which inexplicably occur with either the suffixed or unsuffixed form), words for ‘friend’, and some (apparently important) material possessions, such as čhuya ‘house’: (39) c'ic'a khap - keʔte - khiʔ i bird wing - NOM broken - STAT ‘the bird’s wing is broken’ (65) (40) te pheʔ - i tuč'a - khiʔ 3SG foot - NOM big - STAT ‘his/her foot is big’ (j41) (41) i yawe ah huhkal - taʔ 1SG name 1SG:NOM remember - PST ‘I remembered my name’ (74) (42) cephi me č'a - kek'i - ya:miʔ ew 3SG:NOM 3SG husband DIR - leave - FUT ‘she’s going to leave her husband’ (705) BUT: (43) te - meʔ ok'o:t - i natuy' - siʔ 3SG - GEN children - NOM believe - DUR ‘his/her children believe (it)’ (58) Finally, here is a minimal pair illustrating the difference in interpretation between an alienably and an inalienably possessed noun: 16 The Noun Phrase (44) a.
23) (53) ah leʔa mey - ocow el - taʔ 1SG:NOM many water - root dig - PST ‘I dug lots of swamp-roots’ (191) B. 1 The data make it clear that it is resultant state and 1. Interestingly, reports of past actions without a resulting state seem to be crosslinguistically relatively rarely used in ordinary discourse; it seems that people tend to associate pastness with “closure”. 1 Tense and Aspect 43 While most of these examples with PST express punctual perfective meanings, there is much evidence in our materials that PST is not perfective.
Kayi:naʔ - i naleʔ - šaʔ chicken - NOM angry - DUR ‘the chicken is behaving angrily’ (8) b. kayi:naʔ - i naleʔ - iš - khiʔ chicken - NOM angry - become - STAT ‘the chicken has gotten angry’ (8) (33) a. hin - i ma - muyel - seʔ sun - NOM DIR - go:down - DUR ‘the sun is setting’ (369) b. hin - i ma - muyel - khiʔ sun - NOM DIR - go:down - STAT ‘the sun has set’ (369) (34) a. cephi k'u:wi: - yaʔ 3SG:NOM run - DUR ‘s/he’s running’ (o) 38 The Verb Phrase b. cephi k'uwey - khiʔ 3SG:NOM run - STAT ‘s/he arrived (somewhere) by running’ (369) (35) a.