A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal by Carl Darling Buck

By Carl Darling Buck

Originally released in 1949 and showing now for the 1st time in a paperbound version, Buck's Dictionary continues to be an critical software for diachronic research of the Indo-European languages. prepared in line with the that means of phrases, the paintings comprises greater than 1,000 groupings of synonyms from the important Indo-European languages. greenback first tabulates the phrases describing a selected idea after which discusses their etymological and semantic background, tracing adjustments in that means of the foundation phrases in addition to providing situations indicating which of the older varieties were changed by way of expressions of colloquial or international origin.

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Relevant situations include confirmation, amendment, revision, or rejection of elements of the OWH schema or proposals for different groupings. I am interested in what groupings are supported and, even more importantly, what kind of evidence is presented in support of each new proposal. Discussion is organised under the headings of: groupings within Pama-Nyungan (PN), classification of non-Pama-Nyungan (nPN) languages, and the status of Pama-Nyungan as a genetic entity. I will not follow the OWH schema in distinguishing terminologically between subgroups and groups or between families and phyla.

Much of Schmidt’s terminology for the naming of languages and linguistic groups has been followed by other scholars. Furthermore, his work represents the first systematic attempt at establishing a large family of Australian languages. Many of his lower-level groups remain valid even in the light of superior modern data (although some border A methodological history of Australian linguistic classification 25 languages may have to be re-assigned). On the other hand, Schmidt’s higher-level groups are not at all reliable, since they are based on inadequate methods.

The last-mentioned is identical to OWH’s Yalyi Subgroup. Table 7: Karnic languages language OWH Arabana-Wangkangurru Arabanic G Wangkamadla Arabanic G Wangka-Yutjurru Pitttapittic G Ulaolinya/Lhanima Pitttapittic G Pittta-Pitta Pitttapittic G Punthamara Dieric G: Ngura SG Garlali Dieric G: Ngura SG Wangkumara Dieric G: Ngura SG Badjiri Dieric G: Ngura SG Diyari Dieric G: Karna SG Ngamini Dieric G: Karna SG Yarluyandi Dieric G: Karna SG Yandruwandha Dieric G: Karna SG Yawarrawarrka Dieric G: Karna SG Mithaka Mitakudic G Birria Dieric G: Karna SG Kungardutyi Dieric G: Karna SG Malyangapa Dieric G: Yalyi SG Wadikali Dieric G: Yalyi SG Breen 1971a Karnic: Narla [= Wangka-Yutjurru Karnic: Palku Karnic: Palku Karnic: Palku Karnic: Ngura Karnic: Ngura Karnic: Ngura Karnic: Ngura Karnic: Karna Karnic: Karna Karnic: Karna Karnic: Karna Karnic: Karna Karnic: Karna Pama-Maric: Kapu Pama-Maric: Kapu (not discussed) (not discussed) Bowern 1998/2001c SW Karnic NW Karnic NW Karnic NW Karnic E Karnic E Karnic E Karnic (not Karnic) Central Karnic Central Karnic Central Karnic Central Karnic Central Karnic Central Karnic (not Karnic) (not Karnic) Yarli Yarli Austin (1990a) reconstructs some 50 lexical items and works out the historical phonology of a subset of these languages that he calls ‘Central Karnic’.

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